James Baldwin in conversation with Fran Shatz while living in France,1973. In this portion, Baldwin discusses John Brown, historical memory, white guilt, and the institutional survival of white supremacy. A profound ten minutes.
James Baldwin in conversation with Fran Shatz while living in France,1973. In this portion, Baldwin discusses John Brown, historical memory, white guilt, and the institutional survival of white supremacy. A profound ten minutes.
There is a tendency among the left these days to make ones bona fides through a scathing critique…of the left. While not for a moment denying the need for any number of critiques of and dramatic changes from past (and current) practices and positions, there’s something depressingly defeatist and cynical about the trend. The fact is that, despite all our limitations, it has been the left that has carried the greater part of humanity’s interests, hopes and dignity in the face of the grand barbarism of empire and the countless daily humiliations capitalism bestows upon the working class and the oppressed. For too many, that defense was made foolish by hubris; but there is no denying the exuberance that generations of leftists felt struggling in a cause which they held to be a kind of sacred duty to humanity, their fellow workers, their community, and their children; not to mention the improvement of their own lives.
Every community has had in their time at least one Wobblie or Radical Faerie, or a citizen of New Afrika, a militant abolitionist, or a Knight of Labor, a member of the Furies Collective or the Young Lords, a migrant workers organizer, radical poet or a well-read Marxist, an anti-fascist street fighter, a determined earth warrior or a liberation theologist, and sometimes – often – a mix of many of these. Every block of every community has had someone who rebelled, resisted, refused in its history; and occasionally – more often than we tend to think – it was communities themselves, of people and not just places, that did the rebelling.
The traditions and counter-cultures developed by the workers movement, movements of the oppressed and the left over generations have and still can serve as testimony, warning, prophecy, lesson, celebration and benchmark; they connect peoples and ideas over decades and continents, share experiences and most importantly, belie all the claims to legitimacy of the ruling class, of capital, of empire by pointing to rich alternatives already a part of our present, so deeply rooted are they in our pasts; distant and recent. History is indeed a weapon; both in the service of the oppressors and to the ends of liberation. No one knows this better than the Rustbelt’s friend and comrade of many years, the radical activist and archivist, Brad Duncan.
Brad grew up in the Detroit-area, as you will learn, and is as much a product politically of that city’s history as anything else. And what a history. Gravitating towards counter-culture, left-wing ideas and activism as a middling teen, Brad has always had the exuberance and energy of an old school Wobblie; his booming voice heard leading chants on many a protest and picket line. For Brad, revolution was and is and emancipatory act delivered by the oppressed themselves; he has never been a hack… Not being a hack has allowed Brad to be ecumenical in his interests, following the history of the left without regard to narrow tradition and seeing values in nearly all of the divergent traditions in the, broadly defined, revolutionary and anti-colonial left. But Brad is no dilettante, he takes positions and holds them, guided by his own understanding of politics. The obsessions he developed as a teen have grown with Brad as he has become a serious and rigorous archivist, indeed one of the leading archivists, of the revolutionary left in the United States.
Brad went to Hampshire College in the 1990s and returned to his native Detroit, became an organizer for a revolutionary group and was deeply involved in the political life of the city. In Detroit, we lived together for a time; hosting Marxist study groups in our living room, organizing benefits and going to countless demonstrations; engaging in countless political and historical discussions. Moving to his new home in Philadelphia in 2010, where he currently works in a rare books library of a leading University, he has begun putting his substantial archive on-line in a project he has christened the R.F. Kampfer Revolutionary Literature Archive. Brad has an upcoming exhibit, a Trinospohses in Detroit (t1464 Gratiot Avenue) called ‘Power to the Vanguard: Original Printed Materials from Revolutionary Movements Around the World (1963-1987)’ opening Friday, October 17, 2014,he will be giving a talk there on Saturday, October 18 at 1 pm. The exhibit runs through December 28, 2014.
In this two-part interview we will be discussing how he came to collect, what he collected and how that collecting changed his views about political questions and revolutionary history. We’ll also review the movements, organizations and ideas represented in his collection, the role of history in the left and his place as a radical archivist who views his work, not as an academic pursuit, but as a service to the workers and left movements. In Part two we will discuss the future role of the archive and we will discuss galleries of the Black national and liberation struggle in the US, the anti-colonial struggle in Africa, the labor movement and each will present our own ‘favorite’ picks from the archive.
In the interview we are pleased to present a great number of photos, including many rare first brought to the internet by Brad. Aside from individual pieces, included throughout this portion of the interview are galleries of the Women’s Movement, Detroit, the New Communist Movement, Trotskyism and Ireland from items in Brad’s archive; click on any thumbnail for a larger view or to open a slideshow gallery.
Each of these galleries are just a taste of what is available on his website and readers are encouraged to visit to see the many historically significant, aesthetically arresting, politically astute, counter-cultural gems, reminders of past struggles and fallen comrades, and occasionally, just plain odd and embarrassing reflections of a left that didn’t always have all of its critical faculties intact. We hope readers of the Rustbelt enjoy these interviews as much as we have had putting them together. Brad Duncan can be contacted through his website or leave a question in the comments section and he will be happy to answer.
RR: First off, tell us about the name, RF Kampfer, and the person behind the name. Why did you decide to name the archive after him?
BD: RF Kampfer was the pen name of Detroit socialist and autoworker Neil Chacker (1942-2004). He used that name when he wrote his quirky humor column, ‘Random Shots’ for Against the Current magazine. It’s short for ‘Red Front Fighter’ in German. He loved history and the history of the left, although not in an overly nostalgic way. I think hardcore political activists are interested in history because it is the back story of the battleground we find ourselves on today. Ultimately socialist activists like Neil are mostly interested in the future. So I named the archive, and subsequently the blog, after him (“The RF Kampfer Revolutionary Literature Archive”) as an irreverent tribute to my comrade.
RR: Neil would have been thrilled with the tribute, I am sure. What brought you into collecting and when?
BD: Well the real short answer goes like this– I became very politicized in my late teens, and as soon as I started reading about radical Left politics I felt like I needed to know something about the history of Left movements, the history of social movements in general. I was already interested in history, so as I became more and more left-wing my first impulse was to look for library books about the Wobblies [Industrial Workers of the World], Black Panthers, the various waves of feminism, and ultimately socialist and anarchist political theory. All I could find was the mainstream histories.
RR: But the mainstream histories of the Left were not sufficient…
BD: Exactly. There were hardly any sufficient secondary sources on the 1960s-90s protest movements, so I realized I had to find the primary sources myself. This is especially true if you’re looking for detailed histories of the real radical Left, meaning groups that were seeking revolutionary change—Marxists, anarchists, Black revolutionary nationalists, radical anti-imperialists, revolutionary feminists. I wasn’t looking for liberalism, I was looking for Leninism!
Click on any photo in the ‘Womens Liberation” gallery to open a slide show and a closer look.
For example, until Max Elbaum wrote the book “Revolution in the Air: Sixties Radicals Turn to Lenin, Che and Mao” in the early 2000s, there were essentially no decent histories of the emergence of 1970’s ‘New Communist Movement’ in the United States. And really there was not a solid text on Trotskyism’s growth and change in the 70s and 80s. Even when I moved away to college and had access to bigger libraries I couldn’t really find in-depth historical writing on international Left movements and liberation struggles from the post-60s period. You could find some excellent histories of the U.S. Left up to about the early 60s. But then the trail goes cold.
RR: And this is searching before the internet…
BD: Exactly. I was a teenager, and the internet hadn’t really become a factor yet. At least not for this kind of research anyway. So here I am, in 1996 and 1997 trying to figure out what’s the deal with, for example, the rise of Maoism in the post-SDS New Left or why Latin American Trotskyists turned to guerrillaism in the 70s and there is no scholarly text or popular text available.
There were a couple of websites eventually, but again, most of them focused on contemporary groups, which I was also very interested in, but this didn’t really help me learn about what exactly happened to the generation of the New Left. Not in any real detailed anyway. I wanted detail.
So the idea of finding and reading pamphlets and newspapers produced by the organizations and movements themselves really appealed to me.
RR: What was it about the New Left that appealed to you?
The New Left period (say, 1963-1978) was so fascinating to me because it was a period when radical left-wing politics were gaining a mass audience, when real social movements were militant and growing, and yet it really wasn’t that long ago. And this was 20 years ago that I started to really read about the politics of the radical movements of the 1960s, so it was even more recent then!
On a personal note, I think I was interested in the New Left period because I had always loved the music of the late 1960s and early 70s. The Velvet Underground, Sun Ra Arkestra, The Fugs, all this stuff that I had thought was radical as a young teenager. But when you start to learn about the Young Lords, the Black Panthers, all the radical women’s liberation groups, and all the anti-colonial groups worldwide— it changes your conception of “the radical 60s”!
RR: So collecting really begins for you as a project to answer your questions, not the accumulation of pieces?
BD: I would say in terms of collecting; the thing that got me interested in really hunting for New Left and later 70s Left materials was the result of a problem I saw in the history books. See, all the history books that were around at the time told the story of the 1960s like this: “the early and mid-60s was the Good 60s, because everyone believed in nonviolence, integration, and modest reforms, but the late 60s were the Bad 60s because that’s when everyone embraced violence, reject integrationism for black nationalism, and rejected liberalism for communism”. This general approach was very common in the books I could find in the mid-1990s. It’s the dominant liberal view of the New Left period. Furthermore, and this really made me scratch my head in utter confusion, is all of these histories of 60’s radicalism basically stop abruptly in the early 1970s. They made it seem like the whole generation of ’68, after being drawn into political activism at the height of the anti-war, feminist, and Black Power movements, suddenly retreated from politics in, say, 1973.
But that just couldn’t be the whole story! Even as a young novice I knew that movements that big take a long time to play out and decline. So where was the missing story of what radical activists of the 1960s did during the 1970s? What about the mysterious decade that followed the movement’s zenith? These movements don’t just vanish.
Part of why I started looking for original materials—like party newspapers and pamphlets—was to get a handle on exactly how Marxists, of both Maoist and Trotskyist varieties, dealt with the long dissolution of the “Long 60s”. Because the main histories of SDS, the anti-war movement, Black Power, and the other expression of that period were just not shedding any light on that. I wanted to uncover the hidden 1970s.
RR: And as a model for activism?
BD: As for it being a model for activism, it’s hard to say. I remember thinking of the legacy of the New Left, the radical 70s, and especially the Leninist revival in both its Maoist and Trotskyist forms as having as many negative lessons as it did positive lessons. So I never was one to think that we needed to replicate what they tried back then. Obviously I found the period inspiring, I still find it inspiring. But “model” is a strong word. Really, by the time I was into political activism the kind of organizing that was popular was more influenced by the Zapatistas, horizontalism, the anti-sweatshop movement and the whole style of organizing and ideology that would be called the anti-globalization movement after Seattle in 1999.
My activist experience was more 90s quasi-anarchism to be honest, with a strong influence of the Detroit Newspaper Strike (1995). That’s where I was at politically. I was really interested in all these different periods, I felt like they all had lessons. I was fascinated with the radical 70s and the Leninist “party building” scene–really fascinated–but I never wanted to actually rehash any of that stuff in the late 1990s when I was first digging into this material.
RR: Where did you start looking at first?
BD: What I started figuring out in my late teens is that if you keep your eyes open, and you go to lots of used book stores, used book fairs, library used book sales, etc., you can find items mixed in that tell a hidden story.
The first place I looked was in used book stores, thrift shops, and other places where you might find old printed materials like books and pamphlets. These places were already my haunts. I collected records as a teen, and knew a lot of other record collectors around Detroit and hitting the local old stuff emporiums were already a part of the culture. We’re talking early on here, when I was in my late teens.
Spending countless hours at big, dusty bookstores like John King Books in downtown Detroit, I begin to notice that if you comb through old books enough you will start to see items that were actually published by the organizations, parties and collectives that made up the constellation of Leninist groups that sprung up in the early 1970s.
RR: Give an example?
BD: You’ll see Liberator Press on the spine of a book. Well that’s the October League (Marxist-Leninist). Proletarian Editions? That’s the Communist Labor Party. Pathfinder? Pioneer? Monad? Merit? All publishing imprints of the Socialist Workers Party.
RR: And not only was there a physical paper trail, unlike today where most things are published and discussed digitally, the left was using what it wrote to organize with…
BD: Because those movements believed in print publishing! They believed in pamphlets and newspapers and books and distributing literature, from Marxist-Leninists to Black Nationalists to anarchists. While most of it has not survived, because ultimately most agitational material was made to be topical, there are remnants that do remain if you just commit yourself to looking.
RR: Detroit seems like it would be rich in old lefty books?
Click on any photo in the ‘Detroit” gallery to open a slide show and a closer look.
BD: Detroit has more of this stuff than most cities. I grew up in suburban Detroit, and then lived in the city of Detroit for over a decade, so all of my early years of collecting centered on Detroit. And for a whole number of historical reasons, Detroit has a higher concentration of people who have been involved with Marxist, socialist, Black Nationalist, revolutionary, internationalist and class struggle organizations and movements than people can really comprehend. I mean, the city is at the center of Labor history and Black history, and honestly you can tell by making the rounds of the city’s used book stores, junk shops, yard and estate sales, and libraries. So I would realize in time that I was searching in pretty fertile ground for historical remnants of radical social movements.
RR: What book stores were you looking at?
BD: Early on in my used book shop adventures around the Detroit area in the mid-1990s I found a number of books that really gave me a thrill then, although looking back now they’re not really the rarest titles. But back then I found lots of labor history books published by Charles H. Kerr, the incredibly long-standing radical publisher in Chicago; John King Books had tons of them, all priced around 2 bucks each, maybe 3 bucks.
There was also a bookstore in Ann Arbor called the Wooden Spoon, which was run by lefties and had a terrific collection of left-wing used books at a fair price. So I built myself a budget library of the basics, and then some, with a certain manic intensity. Again, there wasn’t an Amazon to help you find books with small print runs. You really just had to go look in as many places as possible. I’d visit radical bookshops like Blackout Books in New York, New World Resource Center in Chicago, Lucy Parsons in Boston, and Wooden Shoe in Philly.
That’s just the story behind finding this old material hidden in public places, just one side. Ultimately most of my material was given to me by friends, friends of friends, and people I have come to know through political activism. That’s a whole other story! That started in my early 20s, when I had moved to Southwest Detroit.
RR: What kind of people were you meeting politically? Did they encourage your interest in their history?
BD: That was another key factor that brought me into collecting. It’s really central to what I do; my relationship with my elders. What I mean is that as I got more involved with political activism during my early 20s I met more and more veterans of the 60s struggles, folks my parents age. Some of them actually lived on my block near Clark Park in Detroit. Socialists, anarchists, Pan-Africanists, longtime rank and file labor activists. When they discovered that I was really interested in movement history, and that I was a voracious reader, some of them would say “I have all these old pamphlets and newspapers in my attic, or office or garage or whatever, that I’ve been meaning to do something with for decades, so if you want to take some…”
RR: Rather than have them sit in basements forgotten or thrown out, you became a sort of guardian that folks could trust to respect their work….and clean out their closest?
BD: Exactly, I became like this attic-cleaning service for veteran Detroit leftists! I could come to you house and simply load all your tanned, tattered old socialist newspapers from 1971 into my Ford Ranger and you’d have a nice, uncluttered office or attic or garage! I’m only half kidding!
Honestly, many older comrades thought I was doing them the favor. I was clearing out old paper materials that were no longer topical. So I started inheriting and being gifted whole collections by my early 20s. That’s when the whole collecting, researching, discovering, archiving project really started to gain steam.
RR: What were some of your first pieces?
Over time I grabbed all these beautifully aged, dusty little hardcover books about the Wobblies, socialism, Debs, Marx and Engels, all the various topics of the radical 1910s. I was about 18 or 19 years old, maybe 20, and obsessed with the Wobblies, and these beaten little books, and they were in terrible shape, were like a portal to the past. Around that same time I started to realize how robust the publishing arms of the Communist Party, USA and the Socialist Workers Party really were once upon a time.
Titles released by both parties could very easily be found in used book shops around town, and in terms of figuring out the twists and turns of these two attempts at Leninist party building, discovering random paperbacks from International Publishers or Pathfinder Press was an early thrill. Especially finding independent Marxist publishers in a bookshop stuffed with utterly mainstream titles, and you found the one subversive nugget. Priceless!
RR: Are you collecting contemporary things, like flyers handed out at demos or meetings you attend?
BD: All the time, in this period I’m going to a lot of actions, forums, etc. and picking up a lot of contemporary materials all the time; flyers and newspapers that I get from socialist and anarchist groups at protests; that stuff was really starting to pile up.
RR: So when did this collection really start to explode and become more than just a collection of books? What was the turning point?
BD: That happened in the summer of 2000. There’s a small, gritty used paperback shop in Detroit’s Cass Corridor neighborhood that I would visit while out on my rounds despite it rare yielding anything good. One day the owner says he has “some commie stuff in the backroom” that I might be interested in. People say that to me all the time and often they mean Soviet-related stuff that’s dry and generally uninteresting. But what he brought out took my breath away. Apparently one of the long-standing Marxist-Leninist organizations of the 1970s and 80s, part of the New Communist Movement which arose from the New Left, had sold its entire archive of movement publications from the late 60’s through the mid-80s. The shop owner brings out 12 large boxes of printed items, mostly newspapers and pamphlets, from just about every single radical left current of the 1970s, especially those that were influenced by Mao Tse-Tung and the Chinese revolution.
RR: So a Marxist group had assembled a collection of material by other groups?
BD: Most groups assembled libraries like this. They’d send their periodicals and publications to other parties or collectives that were a part of their political milieu, and those groups would in turn send their periodicals. This was said to help cross-organizational co-operation by my feeling is it was mostly to provide quotes for lacerating polemics against rival parties, but that’s another story. Anyway, here it was in front of my eyes, packed into a dozen cardboard boxes on Cass Ave. in Detroit, a perfectly preserved archeological find. The entire 1970s, post-New Left ‘New Communist Movement’, from the U.S. to Iran to India to Ireland to El Salvador, sprawled out in front of me. I was dizzy.
RR: We’re talking about Maoism here, right?
Click on any photo in the ‘New Communist Movement” gallery to open a slide show and a closer look.
BD: Well sure, Maoism for lack of a better word. The Chinese Revolution, the Cultural Revolution of the 60s, and China’s bold declarations of support for national liberation struggles had a wide-ranging influence on radical Left movements everywhere from the U.S. to India. Not all of these movements would call themselves ‘Maoist’, although some would. But yeah, we’re talking about the same current of revolutionary politics. As opposed to Trotskyism or the mainstream Communist Parties.
Another reason why ‘Maoism’ as a term doesn’t tell the whole story is that many groups in this current were also influenced by the Cuban revolution, Black nationalism, and other sources. This was an important trend in the late 60s and through the 70s.
Let me just say that this wing of the movement was exactly one of the wings of the far-left that I was so eager to research but had hit a wall! These were exactly the organizations that I was trying to investigate, and here were all the primary sources I could possibly handle. I bought the first box for forty bucks, and then bought the other boxes for about 20 bucks each. I’d go in every other weekend and get a new box until I had them all.
RR: Unbelievable. Talk about luck.
BD: This wasn’t just a nice book collection; this was an archive of extremely unique items ranging from the Naxalite movement in India to the Black liberation struggle in the U.S. Although majority white groups, such as the Marxist-Leninist “party-building” groups that emerged from the dissolution of Students for a Democratic Society, feature in the collection, many of the organizations were people of color majority organizations. This was one of the aspects of the 70s New Communist Movement that had always interested me the most, but again hard information and primary sources had been so hard to find.
But here was newspapers Asian-American groups like I Wor Kuen, J-Town Collective and Wei Min She, Chicano organizations like August 29th Movement and the Communist Collective of the Chicano Nation, and African-American groups like Black Workers Congress and the Congress of Afrikan People. These 12 boxes became an obsession. I feel like I spent the first half of my 20’s reading every paper and pamphlet in this entrancing haul. In terms of hunting for old leftist literature, this was my baptism by fire.
RR: But you’re mostly getting things from friends you said. Let’s get back to that. I’m very interested in how these historical materials change hands, about the personal and political connections behind it.
BD: You’re right, and hot on the heels of this insane Maoist literature score I started to come into some great materials from another wing of the Marxist left entirely. I joined the socialist group Solidarity when I was 21, and was involved with the Detroit branch as soon as I moved to Southwest Detroit the following year.
I actually worked full-time for the organization for a couple years right out of college, so I knew a whole vast network of socialists in Detroit and different cities. Solidarity was started in the mid-1980s as a fusion of three groups that come from a Trotskyist background. So lots of the older members of Solidarity that I would meet, who I of course really looked up to and was constantly learning from, were former members of either the International Socialists or the Socialist Workers Party.
These folks, most of whom had joined the IS or SWP during the late 60s or early 70s, were real mentors to me. I wanted to know about their history. I took their history very, very seriously because I took these people seriously as activists. So when a comrade hands me a stack of old party newspapers—with front page coverage of the crucial struggles of the radical 70s!!—it’s like a portal to the past. It’s as close as I’m going to get to really understanding the mechanics of the movement during its 1968-1974 heyday. Flyers for local events, internal debates, theoretical and agitational publications, and other course the revolutionary tabloids that cadre sold at factory gates across the country, often at shift-change in the middle of the night.
The more I got to know folks from the Trotskyist Left—and the, um, post-post-Trotskyist Left?—the more folks learned that I’m really interested in the history of the movement and that I really like to read old newspaper and pamphlets. So to a certain extent I developed a profile as someone who you should donate your old political literature to. I’d treat it well and read it and give it a good home.
RR: Who were some of the Trotskyists?
Click on any photo in the ‘Trotskyism” gallery to open a slide show and a closer look.
BD: Around this time I also became friends with people in Detroit and Ann Arbor who were in a small group called the Trotskyist League. Members of the TL had been involved in Anti-Racist Action, extensive local labor activism, and other struggles since the early 80s when they were a part of the Revolutionary Workers League. My close friendship and political collaboration with TL folks led to boxes of comrades unwanted old movement literature too, including cool items from exiled Iranian left groups from the early 80s, shop-floor agitprop from Dearborn’s Ford Rouge factory, and of course anti-fascist stuff.
I also became close with people who had previously been in a group called the Fourth Internationalist Tendency, which included many significant SWP veterans. One friend who had been in the FIT and later joined
Solidarity gave me an entire Ford Focus full of original Socialist Workers Party publications from the 1930s-1980s. It was unbelievably generous, I felt so honored to be the caretaker.
I ended up inheriting an incredible amount of material from the International Socialists (circa 1969-1985) and Socialist Workers Party (circa early 1930s to early 1980s), and that was thanks to people who were first and foremost friends and comrades. That’s the foundation of my Trotskyism collection. But really I’ve got friends and friends of friends in a number of other groups that I have received literature donations from.
RR: You obviously took your role as caretaker seriously. And once you get a reputation in a circle of people it grows and you become something like a magnet for old left-wing paper materials.
BD: Exactly! My apartment became something of repository; at least once this whole dynamic snowballed. I was never pushy; I never twisted anyone’s arm for old pamphlets! But I did honestly help a lot of comrades clean out their office or garage and took old literature as payment. I wasn’t exaggerating about that.
Once it got rolling, it was basically a full-time thing. I was looking for old leftist newspapers—Trotskyist, Maoist, anarchist, Black Power, feminist, anti-imperialist—constantly and looking everywhere. I could tell you so many ridiculous stories about going great length to find old leftist literature, or stories of blind luck. I don’t want to ramble; there are other things to talk about!
RR: I like the stories of discovering this stuff, go on.
BD: Sure. Once I was cat-sitting for a friend of mine who is a longtime socialist. She was radicalized in 1968 and eventually took a job in an auto factory and become a popular local union leader. Not an entirely uncommon story for New Left era Marxist activists, although most were not as successful. It was a 3 month gig and I was given most of her collection of posters from the Angolan independence movement that I discovered in her basement as (most of) my payment. She was perhaps a bit perplexed that I was that in love with these posters. They were musty and torn. But by that point I was so wrapped up in finding original printed materials from radical social movements and liberation struggles that the idea of having original posters printed by the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola in 1975—on the eve of victory—was simply more important than anything to me. And if you’re not personal friends with veteran socialist, anti-imperialist activists, how do you find those items? Those kinds of items are by definition only in the basement/attic/closet of a very specific kind of person. I’m just lucky enough to be friends with political activists who found it difficult to throw things away for decades.
Want to hear another one of my favorite random mega-score stories?
RR: Of course I do.
BD: It was the summer of 2001 and I was living in Southwest Detroit, on a street nicknamed “Red Row” for the high concentration of socialists who had lived on that street over the years. The SWP had set up a Pathfinder bookstore on the corner near Clark Park. By this time their Detroit presence had dwindled to almost nothing so the bookstore was never really open. Needless to say this is not the SWP of the New Left era, but that’s another story. Anyway one day I’m driving by and not only is the store open, and not only are they having a going out of business mega-sale—which means I’m already kind of freaking out—but this sale includes more than just Pathfinder titles from recent decades (some of which I’m decidedly not interested in actually), but contains the personal book collections of many members of the branch as well as the Detroit branch’s library going back to the 1940s. Like the branch and its members were getting rid of all print media at once!
RR: The kind of thing a collector dreams of! It’s all about knowing the right people and place and then being in the right place at the right time. Knowledge, art and luck.
And this process meant being there just when they were selling pamphlets about the Minneapolis Teamsters strike from the 40s, anti-colonial pamphlets from the early 60s (cool items about Algeria and Congo), Malcolm X and Fidel pamphlets from 1963, and stacks on items from Trotskyist parties around the world, especially the Lanka Sama Samaja Party of Sri Lanka from the 1950s. And lots of 70s materials from other Fourth International groups across Europe and Latin America. There weren’t many customers there.
And they were selling this stuff for 50 cents for pamphlets and paperbacks, dollar for hardcovers. Basically, it was a yard sale of 65 years of Trotskyist publishing. I figured I’d make them a deal. I said how about I donate 100 or so bucks to the branch and we just load all of this stuff into my truck right now and call it a day.
I remember that day well. I was at a going away part for a friend and Marty Glaberman was there. And then I stumbled into buying an entire Trotskyist bookstore on the way home. Much like the scene at that musty old bookstore in the Cass Corridor where I stumbled into that Marxist-Leninist group’s archive, this was another complete lucky break. I don’t have any explanation! These situations just find me!
RR: We both share a long interest in Ireland. the first conversation I remember having with you was about the 1981 Hunger Strikes on the steps of Zoot’s Coffee House in Detroit. I know you visited in the 90s, were you collecting when you went?
BD: I remember it like it was yesterday! Everyone was sitting around on the front porch, as was the tradition at Zoot’s Coffee, and I hear this guy saying to someone “Martin Hurson, Michael Devine, Joe McDonnell…” and I immediately thought ‘this guy is talking about the 1981 hunger strikes in Ireland!’ And it turns out that you were also the guy who had been leaving Marxist newspapers—including ‘conflicting’ tendencies—on the back table. I had been looking for you! And that was our first bond. I remember sitting in your miniscule apartment on Fourth Street in Detroit watching the protests against the Orange Order parades on television. I remember watching the standoff at Drumcree with you, and talking all night about the twists and turns of Northern Irish politics in the mid-90s.
RR: And that was the time of the Detroit Newspaper Strike, which was the reason I came to Detroit to live; a transformative event for all involved.
BD: The Detroit Newspaper Strike was going full swing back then, which had a huge, huge impact on me. There were massive picket lines, conflicts with the company’s rented police force, and some pretty bold direct actions. It was exciting. And at the same time there were strikes in Decatur, Illinois and actually a couple other Upper Midwestern towns, and there was the emergence of the Zapatistas in Mexico–so there were little pockets of protest, little islands of resistance–but honesty, that whole mid-90s era was a horrible period for leftists. I really came on board at a low point! But I’ll tell you what; I sure picked up a lot of newspapers, pamphlets, and flyers at those strike demonstrations.
I remember the huge national demonstration for the Detroit Newspaper Strike in the summer of 1997. The whole radical labor subculture was there. Militant unionists came from far and wide, it was pretty incredible. Well over 20,000 marching through downtown Detroit. And what a selection of agitprop newspapers! I filled my backpack that day, and took home a half dozen different discarded picket signs for my collection.
RR: OK, back to Ireland…
Click on any photo in the ‘Ireland” gallery to open a slide show and a closer look.
BD: Yeah, Ireland. I had been learning about the Irish republican movement in Ireland since, well, long before I was a radical. I remember seeing Irish republican demonstrators picketing a bagpipe concert by members of the BritishArmy. I went with my family as a kid to hear the bagpipes, but the musicians were soldiers so people from Irish Northern Aid protested out front with photos of people killed by the British Army in the north of Ireland. So I had always been interested, and as I became a leftist and started really digging in and learning about 20th century revolutionary movements, Ireland really came to the fore with me.
Of course the peace process hadn’t really blossomed yet, and there were campaigns that I could participate in like the campaign to free Roisin McAliskey. So Ireland was important for me, and learning the ins and outs of the Troubles was a whole political education. I took learning the history seriously.
By the time I spent a summer in Belfast in 1999, a year after the signing of the Good Friday Agreement, I had been completely obsessed with the history and politics of the post-1969 conflict for years. Actually spending time there and meeting people and just walking around Belfast was absolutely life-changing.
I was definitely collecting political literature pretty seriously already then, and you better believe that I was determined to find cool items during my summer in Belfast! It was almost too easy. There are a number of places that sell anti-imperialist and leftist literature and, unlike bookstores back home, nearly all of the periodicals and publications were titles you really couldn’t find back home. A couple of republican groups had a bookshops right on the Falls Road, which of course had some cool items. There’s an Irish language cultural center that has periodicals from different independence movements around Europe. I got newspapers and pamphlets from Connolly Books in Dublin, too. I had always wanted to go there. I came back to Detroit with a duffel bag of party newspapers and flyers.
Ireland has always been a collecting focus, always. And other interests come and go to a certain extent, but I’m never not interested in the Troubles, the Irish left, Marxism and the National Question, republicanism…even just talking about it makes me want to read some old pamphlets from 1973!
RR: Let’s talk about some of the pieces. Which one tells a story about Ireland that you think people should know, but don’t?
BD: One of my absolute favorite Irish pieces is a hefty pamphlet from 1977 titled “‘Prison Struggle – the story of continuing resistance behind the wire”. It was published in Belfast by publishing imprint of the Provisional Republican Movement. It basically details life in prison for Irish Republican prisoners of war before Britain decided to revoke their political prisoner status. So the pamphlet is a really intimate look at POW camps during a period when Irish Republican prisoners were exempt from prison labor and could hold classes, socialize with comrades in their own clothes, and other activities aimed and political education of Provisional IRA members and also keeping up moral and cohesion while behind bars.
The pamphlet includes prisoner drawings of political education sessions, with POWs shown reading classic revolutionary works. And there are photographs to, which of course required ingenuity to take inside the prison walls. The pamphlet was assembled by supporters on the outside, but most of the content is by the prisoners themselves. Of course as you read it you realize that not long after these photos were taken the prisons became increasingly oppressive and whatever small rights POWs had was taken away. Britain was attempting to isolate the prisoners from their supporters, to demoralize them, and to present Irish republicanism as being merely an armed criminal conspiracy. This all lays the basis for the hunger strike of 1981 when ten Irish republican prisoners died. So the pamphlet comes from an important era, and it captures a turning point in the struggle. Before the blanket protest, before the no-wash protest and eventually the hunger strike.
RR: Do you have original 1980-81 Hunger Strike material in your collection?
BD: Yes, not just material that came out of the campaign, but I also have newspapers by many left groups that cover the hunger strikes. For example there was a quite dynamic M-L organization in Montreal at the time called Marxist Leninist Organization of Canada (IN STRUGGLE!), and they sent journalists to the north of Ireland in 1981 to cover it. I have some great items from them. I also have a newspaper from Amiri Baraka’s group, League of Revolutionary Struggle, with the hunger strikes on the cover. The whole radical Left covered the events that spring and summer.
RR: I know you are passionate about all of this, but are there parts of your collection that you’ve assembled as a completest or to get the technically correct material, while others you are drawn to for personal or even sen timental reasons?
BD: I would say that’s true. Things make it into my collection or get pruned from my collection based on a number of criteria. And we should talk more about pruning items too, that’s important for collectors. However, there are some items that I keep because they are representational. They fill in gaps; they help tell a fuller story. Items that are bibliographically necessary, you might say. But really I’m pretty disciplined about what I take on now. My overall trend these last few years has been towards becoming more and more focused. If I’m not that interested in a topic or a specific printed item I’ll rethink if I should even have it in the archive.
RR: Do you ever ‘prune’ the archive to make room, or get rid of redundant or lesser material?
BD: I get rid of materials all the time. I donate books to movement spaces, I give books away to friends, and generally try to re-circulate anything that doesn’t seem like it should really go with what I’m trying to do with the archive.
A ton of my books are at Trinisohphes in Detroit, so you can read about labor and radical history while enjoying a Free Jazz performance or an art exhibit. Some of my books are at an anarchist vegan coffeehouse in South Philly, some of my books are at a Black nationalist café on Woodward Avenue in Highland Park, Michigan, some of my books were confiscated during the raid on the Occupy Wall Street, some of my books have been given to groups that send books to prisoners, and a lot of my books have gone to activist friends who are younger and don’t know the history yet but want to learn. I just give away books a lot. Like I said, that’s how I got most of mine. That’s what separates me from hoarders! I have a very socialist approach to re-circulating old books.
End of Part I
Not only was he one of the finest writers of his day, he was one of the finest orators as well. To hear him speak! While the racial reality of the United States has changed significantly since Baldwin spoke, forty-plus years ago now, the reality of alienation at the heart of Baldwin’s critique remains. And racism remains; now even more leavened by class. Baldwin’s alienation, his own and his appreciation of it, is heightened by his vast empathy.
Apropos the previous post. Listen. Do you hear echoes of your own life? How much has changed for poor blacks, for the poor in general, for immigrants, for all those on the outside looking in? The dislocation between the ideal and the reality is, as ever, ever present. The schism in our society between those that take and those taken from is as great as any time; including the time of chattel. Are not the truths he tells yet to be recognized? If we haven’t confronted our racial history, how can we claim to have moved on from it? I hear a warning still.
Mahmoud Abu Aisha is 23 years old; Based in Palestine, Gaza. He is active in mental health issues, lobbying and advocating on the Palestinian issue in the medical and academic forums worldwide. Mahmoud works for Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) as Project Officer of the Crisis Intervention for Victims of Israeli War. He was the coordinator for the GCMHP’s 5th International Conference “Siege and Mental Health… Walls vs. Bridges” which took place on 26-28 October, 2008. The conference was co sponsored by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
Patricia Campbell, from the north of Ireland, was a participant at the conference. She has maintained contact with Mahmoud since the conference and through out the war. She interviews him for Fourthwrite magazine and Independent Jewish Voices (Canada) as well as The Rustbelt Radical website.
PC: It is beyond our comprehension what it must have been like living with constant threat, death, destruction and bombings. Can you explain how you and other survivors coped during those three weeks of constant attack?
Mahmoud: When I used to write about victims of Israeli crimes, I never imagined that one day I’d be writing about the unbearable misery of my own family.
In the first days of Israel’s war against Gaza, we received a phone call from friends about the bombing of my cousin’s home. I was in shock. I couldn’t believe it. Fifteen minutes later, another phone call came from relatives asking whether we had heard this news and if it was true.
I turned on the radio and the local station confirmed that the Abu Aisha home had been bombed by F16 warplanes, resulting in the murder of the entire family of seven.
When we arrived at my cousin’s house we found the civil defence and ambulances there collecting the severed limbs of the children and their parents. We found the father’s corpse laying on the ground, about 50 meters away from the home, with severe injuries and burns. One of the mothers, (we couldn’t distinguish which one) was found with the head and shoulder amputated from her body.
The fate of the children was even more heart-wrenching. I was weeping while collecting their limbs and shredded bodies. The three children were Mohamad, 4 years, Ghaida, 7 years, and Sayed, 10 years. I am still traumatized from seeing their fingers, flesh and guts spread everywhere.
Only Dalal, 12 years old, survived. She had gone to sleep with her aunt the day before, as she was afraid of the shelling. When she discovered that she had lost her entire family, she slumped over in shock. She was inconsolable, crying; “I am an orphan… what is my sin?… Nothing remains for me…”
Dalal is consumed with grief by the loss of her family, and she cries constantly. The only things left in her home were her school uniform, her cat and some photos of her brothers and sister.
No safe place
We have lived difficult times under the Israeli war. We were subject to the Israeli undiscriminating missiles that target everything, yes everything. Neither stones, nor trees, nor humans were safe. Everyday, every moment, we experienced death and destruction. We didn’t feel safe even in our homes. They threatened so many people to evacuate their homes by phone calls to shell them. Many of the threats were real and others were to spread fear and terror among civilians. All in all, it was a form of psychological warfare, yet we witnessed other cruel threats by the direct bombardment of many homes in very intensive areas. Many people left their homes in pursuit of safe places, but nowhere was safe everywhere was attacked.
Israeli air jets
Not only this, the Israeli air jets and artillery shelling targeted civilian homes causing disasters and calamities for every family in the Gaza Strip. I personally was about to die in many situations. One day, I was walking with my friend under high level of precautions, suddenly huge explosions occurred around 30 meters in front of us targeting an empty school near our home, causing great dust and stones and shrapnel everywhere. My friend fell down screaming. He sustained a chest injury and caused deep wounds and burns to his body and broken ribs. Other people were injured in their homes in the surrounding area.
Military tanks and bulldozers
One day, we received news that the military tanks and bulldozers came closer to our home. We had to leave our home in a hurry, we took our luggage and I went with my sister in law and her three sons (3, 5, 7 years) at sunset. A hail of bullets rushed everywhere and we witnessed explosives in the buildings ahead us. You can imagine the fear, panic and anxiety we felt. My fear aroused from the inability to protect my nephews. They were crying and clinging with my chest and hands. Even my sister-in-law was terrified that she was grasping my jacket. Despite the high level of risk, we had to go ahead despite the challenge. On our way we entered a cemetery that was shelled two days before, the airplanes fired lightening bombs over our heads… we were frozen with fear and my sister-in-law collapsed. I could hardly hold the young two children, she proceeded to walk barefooted, and the older child (2nd primary grade) was clinging my legs. We crept along to survive until we reached another populated area. We stayed in our relatives’ home, though it was not safe there either. We endured the 22 days struggling for survival. When we heard news about more deaths, it became ordinary as life became equal to death in Gaza at that time.
During this time we were without electricity or water or communication in most of the Gaza areas. All the networks were destroyed, so we didn’t know the full extent of the destruction.
When the bombing stopped
After the war ended, I couldn’t bear witnessing the scenes of destruction everywhere. The barbarity of the situation became apparent. I went to the destroyed areas, and realised how much destruction happened. I couldn’t recognize the roads in the neighbourhoods.
PC: There is reports that suggest the conduct of Israeli ground troops were ruthless and barbaric. Can you tell us more about that?
Mahmoud: Actually, words cannot describe what the Israeli ground troops committed in the Gaza strip. The behaviour of the Israeli troops during this war hasn’t been ordinary troops’ behaviour during fighting; rather, it has reflected a kind of personal or group revenge. This has been indicated throughout targeting civilians and innocent people in a very aggressive, inhumane, and cruel ways, using internationally prohibited weapons and causing calamities for every family in Gaza… I lost my cousin, her husband and kids in an Israeli F16 missile at their home after midnight… and only Dalal 12 years was the survivor in this family.
Destruction and Genocide
Every thing was entirely destroyed. When I saw what happened to the invaded areas, I couldn’t recognize the original sites or buildings. The destruction was in a very horrible way. Even animals were killed, dead cows were thrown away decaying and causing dangerous diseases to people sheltered in UNESCO tents. High buildings were targeted and shelled causing damages to all the surrounding houses. Every single individual was affected directly by direct injuries or indirectly by losing dear people or shelling their homes. Detention was very brutal against the innocent civilians who couldn’t escape. Genocide crimes were committed against entire families, such as my relatives Abu Aisha’s; my cousin Dalal 12 years lost her parents and the three siblings. Also, Al-Samouny family members were all besieged (more than 30) in one room and shelled by Apache warplanes, and artillery shelling. Again, the scene was indescribable.
PC: Are tensions still high in Gaza?
Mahmoud: Unfortunately, tensions are still high and increasing with the Israeli threats of more stages of military invasions. There were reports there is military invasion in the eastern boarders, not so far from our area in Gaza. We live with anxiety, panic and fear all the time. Children have shown new critical symptoms like intrusive obsessive behaviours, bed-witting, stuttering, fear of death, nightmares, depression, and PTSD. A few days ago, we were asked to evacuate our offices as there were Israeli threats to resume the air strikes against the remaining governmental building and the banks and all civil society organizations were asked to evacuate to avoid any potential shelling. Our headquarters of Gaza Community Mental Health organization was partially destroyed by the Israeli shelling. All in all, tensions are still high and situation is unpredictable as there is no agreement upon truce or ceasefire.
PC: While Gaza was burning international governments ignored the plight of Palestinians but thousands of protesters took to the streets in cities across the world. Here in Ireland the people of Derry carried Palestinian flags in solidarity with the people of Gaza when they commemorated 13 people from Derry, shot dead by British Paratroops in 1972 and they changed the historical and famous wall mural of ‘Free Derry’ corner to ‘Free Gaza’ Does this type of international solidarity reach the people of Gaza and does it encourage you?
Mahmoud: In fact, yes we know about these solidarity actions by people all over the world like Northern Ireland and United Kingdom and Boston and so many free cities in the western world that inspire us with the soul of resistance and steadfastness against the Israeli cruelty. In the same time we feel sad and sorry about the governments’ stance with Israel that violates all human rights conventions and international laws, and rape humanity in front of the fee world. We do acknowledge and recognize the important role of all nations and their solidarity with us and their positions against the injustice and crimes by Israel, the so-called democratic state!
PC: International doctors who treated the injured in Gaza Hospitals testified that most of the injuries and burns resulted from the use of white phosphors, a powerful chemical munitions that can cause serious and sometimes fatal burns. Can you enlighten us further on this?
Mahmoud: Based on the testimonies of the international doctors who came to Gaza to serve the injured people at hospitals, it was indicated that most of the injuries and burns resulted from using the white phosphors, a powerful chemical munitions that can cause serious and sometimes fatal burns. In this regard, Dr. Nafez Abu Shaaban, the head of the burns unit at Shifa said: “We have never seen this type of injury or the number of such injuries … these were not usual burns.” These new weapons will end up either by death within 6 – 8 months or chronic diseases like cancer and other disabilities. As a result, we have more than 5.000 people who became disable following their injuries. This will leave hundreds of families without livelihood, and hundreds of children orphans. Consequently, feelings of avenge and anger have increased to levels threatening all prospects of peace and stability in the area and will lead to more radical generations.
PC: Finally, despite all you have been through you told me in an email that the people of Gaza are strong and determined. In some ways this is reflected in the colourful picture you captured of little children playing in the middle of the rubble and destruction. How are people dealing with the aftermath of the Israeli onslaught?
People of Gaza have inspired source of power from their long history of trauma they have experienced that equipped people and strengthened them to be able to cope with new traumatic events. Additionally, the strong social ties, family support and religious believes have promoted their psychological resilience. Though, some vulnerable groups like children still face psychological problems and need our help.
Mahmoud’s concluding statement
At the end, I’d like to call upon all free people to work against the Israeli barbaric siege over the Gaza Strip to end the suffocation of the innocent civilians and children. Please let our children live like yours. Please don’t deny us the right to live in safety and security. It’s a call for humanity.
*photos from Mahmoud